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This insightful analysis into the prevailing economic situation in Pakistan has three distinguishing features. It is an exhaustive, analytical history of economic development in Pakistan during the last seventy years; it provides an explanation of Pakistan’s economic performance in the political context, and compares it with other South Asian countries and with East Asia; it outlines for Pakistan an agenda of economic and social reforms based on a model of shared growth to see the country into the twenty-first century.
The main thrust of the book is that the respective roles of the state and the market have been reversed in the case of Pakistan, with the result that the benefits are reaped by the elite class only. This small minority continues to enjoy the unjust accumulation of wealth in the midst of widespread poverty and squalor. The author establishes that such a situation is socially and economically not sustainable.
TITLE: PAKISTAN: THE ECONOMY OF AN ELITIST STATE
AUTHOR: ISHRAT HUSAIN
PUBLISHER: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
Pakistan, since its independence in 1947, had to face tumultuous years for the first four decades. Despite the many challenges, both internal and external, the country was able to register a 6 percent average annual growth rate during the first forty years of its existence. The country was ahead of India and Bangladesh in all economic and social indicators. Since 1990, the country has fallen behind its neighbouring countries and has had a decline in the growth rate.
This book attempts to examine the reasons behind this slowdown, the volatile and inequitable growth of the last twenty-five years, and through a process of theoretical and empirical evidence argues that the most powerful explanatory hypothesis lies in the decay of institutions of governance. It also suggests a selective and incremental approach of restructuring some key public institutions that pertain to accountability, transparency, security, economic growth, and equity.
Publisher: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
Pakistan faces a multitude of economic challenges some of them man made and domestic and the other external and natural. There is very little disagreement on the diagnostics — weak institutions, low productivity. Low savings and investment, burgeoning burden of debt, Macroeconomic instability, poor human capital, indifferent bureaucracy, tough business climate, inefficiencies in energy sector etc. This volume consisting of fourteen chapters attempts to bring together at one place the well-known prescriptions and detailed solutions to address these challenges.
The main insight arising from this work is that a lot has been done to define the contents and the contours of reforms but the asymmetry in the accrual of losses and gains is the main stumbling block to their implementation. As losses are immediate, the losers are identifiable, organized groups that agitate and resist the reforms eroding the political capital of the ruling party weakening their chances at electoral cycle. Successive governments have therefore found hardly any champions among the elected representatives. Given that the gains would occur sometime in distant future and would be diffused throughout the economy the credit for success would be preempted by the party in opposition in power at that time strengthening its chances of getting reelected. This disconnect between the timing of political and economic gains and losses thus leads to the maintenance of status quo.
Publisher: VANGUARD BOOKS
(I) The Commission shall review and make a clear, precise and implementable set of recommendations in respect of:
(a) the division of functions, responsibilities and accountabilities among the federal, provincial and local governments to avoid duplication, overlap and functional redundancy;
(b) the appropriate size of government organizations, at each tier of government including attached departments, autonomous bodies, public sector corporations and other entities in the light of the responsibilities and functions assigned to each;
(c) improving existing, institutional capacity through identification and meeting of skill gaps in the context of functions assigned to organizations of government at all levels;
(d) the redesigning of rules and core business processes at all levels of government to achieve functional efficiency, client orientation, cost reduction, transparency and a shift of focus from process compliance to output and outcomes;
(e) inter-linkages between; federal, provincial and local public services with a view to strengthening the federation through increased transaction efficiency and smoother conduct of business;
(f) public service design for all tiers of government that would include:
(i) the structure of the public services at all levels in view of functional reassignments;
(ii) recruitment, training, placement; promotion and career planning for the public services;
(iii) the development of human capital through training and higher education;
(iv) indicators for qualitative and quantitative measurement of performance for diverse professions and services;
(v) compensation packages and performance based incentives;
(vi) measures to fill capacity gaps in the interim;
(g) legislative requirement to implement the plan;
(h) resource requirement to implement the plan;
(i) a strategy to manage the proposed changes & transformation; and
(j) a monitoring mechanism to monitor the implementation of the approved recommendations.
(2) The review and recommendations of the Commission shall be made remaining within the ambit of the provisions of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Publisher: VANGUARD BOOKS