These collections of the official past papers of the GCE O Level Examinations from the University of Cambridge International Examinations has been developed for students of GCE O level. These books will act as tools for preparation and revision for students. These books have an edited Answer Guide for each paper based on the marks scheme written by CIE Principal ISBN: 8175961821 Publisher: FOUNDATION BOOKS
This book traces the development of Pakistan’s economy through four decades of the country’s existence. The author describes the four successive decades as Stagnation Decade, Development Decade, Disaster Decade, and Bondage Decade for the economy. While the book discusses developments in all the four decades, the second and fourth decades receive special attention from him. This is because the growth strategies pursued by the military rulers, F.M. Mohd. Ayub Khan in the case of second decade, and General Zia-ul-Haq in the fourth decade were of far reaching consequences. These raised important issues of economic policy and development strategy for a developing country.
In a short period of a little over four decades since independence, Pakistan has moved from the status of an independent sovereign state to a dependency position caused by compulsions of external finance that it needs to run the economy. Its foreign policy has come to be dictated by USA while its economic policies are determined by the conditionalities clauses contained in the IMF agreements for grant of special credit facilities to the country. It is with this story of struggle of a Third World country, that Pakistan is, for rapid economic development and tribulations faced by it in the process That the book deals. The discussions in the book of growth strategies, balance of payments problem, prices and wages, economic inequalities and problem of poverty should he of interest not only to students of economic history of Pakistan but also to the development economists the world over. ISBN: 8122001556 Publisher: VANGUARD BOOKS
The author develops a broad strategy for the development of the private sector on the basis of an analytical review of the broad range of constraints and opportunities confronting the private sector in Pakistan.
The analysis is set in the context of a profile of the private sector and a discussion of government policies during the 1990s that impacted its environment.
The book describes private sector activities to highlight the diverse nature and size of activities requiring a variety of different supporting policies.
To place economic performance in proper perspective, it describes the range of reforms undertaken by the government to support the private sector in the financial sector, fiscal area, export promotion, investment, privatization, and the foreign exchange regime.
The reform process carries costs in the short-term apart from those associated with poor sequencing or deficient design. The author also analyses the macroeconomic constraints and discusses the lack of consistency in sectoral policies, deficiencies in incentive policies, the continuing problems in agriculture and the remaining agenda in the financial sector.