In Pakistan, the face of food insecurity is an ugly one: Hungry mobs looting bakeries. Impoverished women and children trampled to death while scrambling for rice hand-outs. Food aid organizations blown up by extremists. Traumatized farmers and urban laborers, unable to feed their families, murdering their children or committing suicide. Destitute, hungry young men succumbing to the temptations of militancy. Approximately 80 million Pakistanis are hungry and 45 million malnourished. With drought-like conditions and serious water shortages routinely afflicting Pakistan, many farmers have been unable to produce enough crops to feed their families, much less to maintain their livelihoods. Other Pakistanis, displaced by military operations in the northwest and forced to leave standing harvests, have struggled to access food in teeming refugee camps or in the crowded homes of the relatives who have taken them in.
The agricultural sector has long been neglected in Pakistan. As a result, outdated agricultural equipment has hampered crop productivity; poorly maintained roads have inhibited efficient food transport; and inadequate storage facilities have turned fresh produce into rot. Yet Pakistan’s history of food insecurity is not merely one of shortages, but also one of poor resource management, with food supplies not getting to the mouths that need them the most. The horrific flooding of 2010 has exacerbated this problem many times over. The challenges of bringing better food security to Pakistan are immense. Yet the stakes could not be higher. By 2050, the country’s total population could reach 335 million—nearly double the current population. Today’s statistics about food insecurity in Pakistan may seem staggering. Yet unless action is taken immediately, these figures could appear modest by comparison in several decades’ time. This volume offers fresh perspectives, from a variety of viewpoints, about one of Pakistan’s most pressing challenges. ISBN: 9789694025520 Publisher: VANGUARD BOOKS
The publication of decennial census reports was initiated by the British Government during the middle of the nineteenth century and has been continued after independence. Questions of reliability and bias in the compilation of information as well as motivations which informed the publication of these reports have been raised and are relevant to every user of census reports. Even so, the censuses were often conducted with painstaking efforts and have preserved for us extremely wide-ranging information on the social, economic and political aspects of Indian life.
They contain information on the distribution and age structure of the population; castes and communities, patterns of occupation, patterns of land-holding and tenancy, health, migration, language, and education, etc., to name just a few aspects of the panorama of Indian society. For researchers interested ‘n understanding Indian life, the reports of he decennial censes compiled by British officers remain, despite the problems of bias, misunderstanding or conscious distortion, an invaluable source of information.
The census reports consisted of two ‘profile a general social and economic ‘profile and statistical material. The general profile contains an account of the census operations, the geographical and physical features of the area, the ethnography of caste and communities and changes in age-structure, health, education, employment, landholding pattern and 4enancy, etc. The statistical part contains data on geography, rainfall, temperature, distribution of population according to different demographic criteria, caste and communities, health, education, employment and migration and landholding and tenancy.
Census reports have, as a rule, been used by demographers, economists and economic historians, and a great deal of this use has been limited to the statistical data contained in them. Sociologists, social historians and political scientists have made very little use of these reports. These reports provide, particularly in the volumes entitled ‘General Reports’ which were published separately for each state as well as for India as a whole, ethnographic information on castes and tribes, describing their internal organization, social changes taking place in them, and the emerging problems of interaction among the different castes and communities. Social movements and trends towards social mobility among the castes and communities are also often discussed. Even from the viewpoint of the sociologists and social historians, therefore, the census reports are invaluable sources of information and cat** provide useful material on how the different sections of Indian society were responding to the processes set in motion by British rule.
The census reports are today a body rare documents available in only a few select libraries and even these libraries do not always have all the available volumes which in an average census year extended to more than a hundred for the whole of India. This reprint of Part I of Report of Census of India 1931 for Punjab is published in the hope that it will be welcomed by individual researchers as well as libraries. ISBN: C1181 Publisher: VANGUARD BOOKS