On an autumn day in 1769, a Hungarian nobleman named Wolfgang von Kempelen attended a conjuring show at the court of Maria Theresa, empress of Austria-Hungary. So unimpressed was Kempelen by the performance that he declared he could do better himself. Maria Theresa held him to his word and gave him six months to prepare a show of his own. Kempelen did not disappoint; he returned to the court the following spring with a mechanical man, fashioned from wood, powered by clockwork, dressed in a stylish Turkish costume—and capable of playing chess.The Turk, as this contraption became known, was an instant success and enjoyed an illustrious career in Europe and America during the next eighty-five years. Associated over time with a host of historical figures, including Benjamin Franklin, Catherine the Great, Napoleon Bonaparte, Charles Babbage, and Edgar Allan Poe, Kempelen’s creation also unwittingly helped to inspire the development of the power loom, the computer, and the detective story. Everywhere it went; the Turk baffled spectators and provoked frenzied speculation about whether a machine could really think. Many rival theories were published serving only to undermine each other, and the Turk’s secret was only ever revealed to a select few.Part historical detective story, part real-life fairy tale, The Turk chronicles the machine’s remarkable and checkered career against the backdrop of the Industrial Revolution, as mechanical technology opened up dramatic new possibilities and the relationship between people and machines was being redefined. Today, in the midst of the computer age, that relationship has assumed a new significance, as scientists and philosophers continue to debate the possibility of machine intelligence. To modern eyes, the Turk was a surprisingly farsighted invention, and its saga is a colorful and important part of the history of technology. ISBN: 0802713912 Publisher: WALKER & COMPANY
‘Journeys East: 20th Century Western Encounters with Eastern Religious Traditions’ gives a complete account of the meeting and mingling of Western and Eastern traditions, which has characterized the history of religion in the 20th century. It is a well structured book which is thought provoking and offers much more than more collection of data. ISBN: 8182749786 Publisher: PENTAGON PRESS
Millions of children in Pakistan live short and painful lives, suffering the worst forms of exploitation and neglect. Such injustice is often explained away as a direct result of the abject poverty in which their families live.
Yet lethargic legislatures, uncaring judges and poor planning by the state must share in the guilt of ignoring the pains and rights of such children. This book sets out to put the record straight. It argues that approaches to the question of child prisoners should require a totally new, care-oriented discipline, especially where legal rights are concerned.
The book examines the extent to which laws are actually applied in practice. Recommendations are then offered to correct the deficiencies in the system. An added bonus for lawyers and human rights organizations involved in the defense for children’s rights is the inclusion of eleven thoroughly updated appendices containing all relevant laws and amendments.