Both Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif didn’t acquit themselves well in the “trial of democracy” from 1988 to 1993. They did worse confronting the “dilemma of democracy” from 1993-1999 – how an elected government can complete its five year term and also provide a level playing field to the “government-in-waiting” to turn the tables at the end of the period. In consequence, Pakistan was driven straight into the jaws of martial law in 1999.
This volume traces the rise and fall of the second Bhutto regime from 1993-96. It records how, through the good offices of the Establishment, she began on a conciliatory note with Nawaz Sharif by offering to nominate a consensus candidate (Wasim Sajjad) as President in exchange for jointly undoing the notorious Clause 58-2(B) of the 8th Constitutional Amendment which hung like the sword of Damocles over every prime minister. It tracks the negotiations to breaking point, compelling her to nominate her “own man”, Farooq Leghari, to the Presidency. It records Nawaz Shun cunning ways to drive a wedge between Leghari and Bhutto, which eventually led the former to use the 8th Amendment to sack the latter.
The major policy issues that preoccupied Benazir Bhutto in her second term were nuclear proliferation, MQM terrorism in Karachi and conflict in Kashmir. The book explains how the US applied economic and military sanctions to pressure Pakistan to cap, freeze and roll back its nuclear programme but failed to achieve its objective. It details how she successfully tackled and put down MQM terrorism through effective use of civil-military power. And it records how she teamed up with the military to promote jihad in India-Occupied Kashmir.
The book is about foul play by both Bhutto and Sharif; foreign policy blues; warlordism in Afghanistan; mythology of Mohajirism; nuclear policy; Mehrangate; General Mirza Aslam Beg’s “grand plan”; threat of an India-Pak nuclear war; journalists for sale; pains of privatization; Indo-Pak relations; doctrine of necessity; corruption and Surreygate. The analysis covers the mind of Benazir Bhutto, her Achilles heel and fatal flaws.
It is indispensable reading for the student of history who wishes to understand how and why democracy failed to take root in the 1990s. ISBN: 9789694026534 Publisher: VANGUARD BOOKS
This title was first published in 2003. This important study contains a detailed socio-economic and political description of a region where opium and heroin are both produced and consumed. By carefully relating drug production, trade and consumption to a relatively inaccessible area on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, the book teaches us not only about the area – itself fascinating enough, particularly since it came into global prominence following the terrorist attack of 11 September 2001 – but also about the global dimensions of the problem. ISBN: 9781138707672 Publisher: ROUTLEDGE
Vol.1 Badakhshan and Northeastern Afghanistan; This area is of great culture and geopolitical intrests because it includes such remote areas as the wakhan corridor, once a buffer between the Russian and British empires and now and area where the borders of the Soviot Union, China and Indi-Pakistani subcontinent meet.
Vol.2 Farah and Southwestern Afghanistan; If we compare this area with the one convered in the Badakshan volume, we might characterised western Afghanistan as the seat of the ancient civilization and an area of paramount archaeological importance.
Vol.3 Herat and Northwestern Afghanistan; The history is outlined in the some detail, illustrating the fait of the town “which enjoys the preminence of having stood more seige than almost any other city in Central Asia, having been deepopulated and desteroyed offener and always having risen from her ruines, if not always renewed splendour, at all events with a vigar and a tanacity of life that is without a parrellel.
Vol.4 Mazar-i-Sharif and North-Central Afghanistan; The Oxus River vally, which forms the boundary between Afgahnistan and the Soviot Union, is described a considerable detail. Similiar attention is paid to the Band-i-Amir, one of the principal river of the provinence, which also carries the name Balakh Ab.
Vol.5 Kandahar and South-Central Afghanistan; It provides data on afghan tribes, including the Barechis, Ghilzais, and Durians-the latter is covered in a 70 pages Appendix. Mountains and various geographical feature are carefully examined, including the great desert region of Registan and Shorawak, which extend along the boundary with Iran in the west and Pakistan in the south.
Vol.6 Kabul and Southeast Afghanistan; It includes the history of Jalalabad, incidents from Anglo-Afghan wars, such as the British defets as Ghazni and the retreat through the Khurd Khaibar, Afghan tribes and ethnic communities, such as the, Pawindas, Ghilzias, Nuristanis, Kharotis, and others are discussed. ISBN: 3201012726 Publisher: AKADEMISCHE DRUCK- U. VERLAGSANSTALT GRAZ – AUSTRIA
This book follows a generally linear historical form. It starts with an account of the country and its people, and then describes and analyses its history, with particular reference to its relations with neighbouring powers and its dominant internal theme, the ongoing struggle between its rulers and tribal society. Attention is paid to the growing dichotomy during the twentieth century between an increasingly sophisticated urban elite and the traditional countryside, and its culmination in the communist coup and Soviet invasion. This is followed by an analysis of the reasons for the Soviet withdrawal and the subsequent civil war.